Week three- Continuing reading and research

I have continued reading the books I borrowed from the library but have changed my approach to how I’m gathering information from them. I begun reading all the books, but realised skim reading and looking up specific links would save time. The only book I’m reading entirely is Gender R.W Connell published 2002 as this covers many aspects of Gender as a whole and is of personal interest to me. I may also read Feminist Media Studies by Liesbet Van Zoonen published in 1994 however I am also going to look in the English Language section in the Library so may find something more useful and up to date.

I am still waiting for a reply from Steve Williams so will leave it another week before visiting him in the library.

In addition, I have been researching into theorists, people like Mulvey, Connell, Tunstall, Grier, Berger, Wolf, Orbach and Madonna. Connell is really good as I realised she is also the author of the book I’m currently reading. I have also been looking to see if there are any documentaries available to watch. I found a programme called Girls can on BBC so I’m planning to watch that later today. It may have some useful information.

Furthermore, I have been considering whether to create surveys or carry out experiments. Perhaps I could watch TV for a period of time and count how many Gender Stereotypes I see in the adverts. But I think whether I need to do this will become clearer as I continue my project. I also have been making decisions on what adverts I plan to analyse; always-like a girl, This girl can campaign, Lynx and Money Supermarket.

ITV is celebrating 60 years today, so this have prompted me to think about how things have changed over time. I could write a paragraph explaining how things have or have not changed within my essay.

Week two- Progression

This week has primarily been focused on reading my way through the books I borrowed from the library: Gender advertisements Erving Goffman published 1976, Feminist Media Studies Liesbet Van Zoonen published 1994, Issues volume 112 Women, Men and Equality  Independence published 2006, Issues volume 154 The Gender Gap Independence published 2008, Issues volume 221 Equality and Gender Roles published 2012 and Gender R.W Connell published 2002. So far I have read and made relevant notes from Equality and Gender Roles and Gender by R.W Connell.

Gender by R.W Connell had some interesting case studies and statistical facts:

‘93% of all cabinet ministers in the worlds government are men’

‘Increase in mens violence for instance the Columbine High School massacre and twenty-eight killings with guns in Queenlands Australia from 1987 to 1996. All twenty-eight killers were men’. Men are four times more likely to own a weapon compared to a women’

‘In Arab States women’s participation rates are as low as one-fifth the rate for men, and in South Asia and Latin America they are about half the rate for men’

‘Four decades after the women’s Liberation movement criticized sexist stereotypes, Western Media is still packed with images of female passivity’

‘Media directs boys towards competitive sports and girls to appearance’

Casestudy: ‘The play of gender in School life’ by Barrie Thorne proved most useful.

Simone De Beauvoir and Juliet Mitchell supported the gender patterns and attempted to change them as stated in this book. It may be an idea for me to research into them to see whether this opens up new leads of research for me.

I also began drafting my introduction to my project, however understand this is likely to change as I develop my understanding to the topic. I printed off an high grade exemplar extended project to help me structure the piece despite it being based on a completely different theme. I highlighted key features and wrote pointers on the example essay for my own benefit.

Abstract (Number of words here)
On November the 12th 1975, the Sex Discrimination Act was established in order to encourage the prosperity of gender equality and help assist in the deterioration of women’s subordinate and passive role in society. Yet, producers persistent failure to reduce stereotyping used in the media has meant that gender divisions still remain part of today’s world affairs. This issue is current, extensive and complex which is believed to have severe impacts on children’s knowledge about opposite sexes.

The aim of this project is to provide an analysis on gender stereotyping in advertising, particularly looking at the language use; to explore theorists ideas; how this effects the audience; and to determine the potential implications on children and society.

In my last post I mentioned having difficulty accessing online journals,almost all of the following need a login in:

Journals from https://journalarchives.jisc.ac.uk/home

Domestic violence and womens rights in Nigeria- Bazza, Hadiza Iza, published 2009
Gender, gender role and physical apperance- Jackson Linda A, Sullivan, Linda A, Hymes, Janet S- journal of psychology. Pubished 1987 Volume 121. Issue 1 , pages 51
Neutral job titles and occupational stereotypes- Lipton, Jack P, Conner, Maureen’O, Terry, Craig, Bellamy, Elizabeth. Published 1991 Journal of psychology. Volume 125. Issue 2, Page 129
Does occupational stereotypes still exist? Journal of psychology, Pierre, Rita St, Herendeen, Nina M, Moore, Diann S, Nagle, Anna. M, Volume 128, issue 5, pages 589, published 1994
To be, or not to be a women: anorexia Nervosa, Normative gender roles, and feminism-
Mahowald, Mary Briody. Journal of medicine and philosophy , volume 17, issue 2, pages 233-251, published April 1992
On the biology and politics of cognitive sex difference, journal Behavioural and brain sciences, by Geary, David C, volume 19 , issue 2, pages 267-284 published june 1996
Does being male help? Kahn, Kim Fridkin, The journal of politics, vloume 54, issue 2, pages 497-517

Does gender make the world go round? Feminist critiques of international relations- Adam Jones, review of international studies, volume 22, issue 4, pages 405-429 published 1996
Equality Issues in the CEE countries- Gromek-Broc, Katarzyna, volume 31, issue 4, pages 413-463, published 2006
The women and peace hypothesis?- Maoz, Ifat, international negotiation, volume 14, issue 3, pages 519-536 published December 2009
Selling picture- Wollen, Tana- journal: screen, volume 24, issue 6, pages 97-101 published 1983
Women candidates in the news- Kahn, Kim Fridkin, Goldenberg, Edie. N- Public opinion quarterly, volume 55, issue 2, pages 180-199, published 1991
Sex roles and sex coded roles- Money, John- Journal of pediatric psychology- volume 2, issue 3, pages 108-109, published 1977
Review of gender, sex and sexuality- Westmarland, Louise- journal of biosocial sciences- volume 27, issue 3, pages 371-372, published 1995
Sex differences in physical attractiveness preferences- Feinman, Saul, Gill, George. W- Journal of social psychology, volume 105, issue 1, pages 43, published 1978

All the journals from the website look particularly useful as there are some based on gender stereotypes in the media, rather then just gender as a whole. This is therefore closely related to my own research. I was advised to email the librarian to see whether our college has logins to access the journals.I am currently waiting for a response back.

Wed 16/09/2015 18:35

Week one- My aims and what I’ve done so far

My aim for this project is to discuss gender roles and representation, explore theorists idea and whether they still apply to today’s society and analyse some current commercials. To narrow my Title ‘ How are gender stereotypes represented in advertising through the use of language?’, I will primarily be focusing on TV adverts as oppose to paper ads. I will look closely at how language is used within these adverts, but first will research gender assumptions to comprehend why particular lexis may be used.

I began my extended project by drafting an initial plan which briefly outlines how I’m going to structure my dissertation as well as information I would like to include. I then began my research on the internet, finding newspaper articles, MP speech’s about gender issues and also websites on gender roles. https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/the-girl-effect-why-tackling-gender-inequality-can-transform-the-developing-world, https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/gender-stereotypes-academic-seminar-report, www.theguardian.com/media-network/2015/ay/26/eight-ads-shatter-gender-stereotypes, and http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/8070745.stm look particularly useful. The following website has recent statistics on gender equality in the UK http://www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/gender-equality-stats-update-2015.pdf. However, I know websites can have outdated information and can be bias depending who wrote them. In addition, I found on-line journals, but had difficulty accessing them due to costs or logins. But I wrote them in my bibliography and plan to ask at college whether they have access to them. I also found existing investigations on a similar topic to mine, but know they could be written by anyone so I wrote down some of there references. A theorist called Erving Goffman is frequently mentioned, so I collected a book written by him from the Worthing library ‘Gender Advertisements published 1976’.

I collected more books from the College library looking in the Sociology, English Language and Film studies section and found Sociology had numerous books on my chosen topic. ‘Equality and Gender roles volume 221 published 2012 by Independence’ (And there volumes 112 and 154 which were published 2006 and 2008), ‘Gender published in 2002 by R.W Connell, ‘Exploring Language for AQA B specification, Shirley Russell published 2008’ and ‘Feminist Media Studies published 1994 by Liesbet van Zoonen’.