I took another visit to the library this week to look in the English language section as I intend to analyse the type of language used within the adverts. I already have a background knowledge of theorists from my English AS, the likes of Deborah Tannen, Robin Lakin, Zimmerman and West, Hommes, Trudgill, Cheshire, Jennifer Coates, Ann Weatherall and Christian Howe. The books that looked useful were ‘Accent, Dialect and The School’ published 1975 Peter Trudgill, ‘The Language of Advertising’ published 1998 Angela Goddard and ‘Routledge A level English Guides Language and Social Context’ published 2003 Amanda Coultas. I plan to make notes on these over the weekend. I copied notes from ‘Gender Advertisements’ published 1976 Erving Goffman which I will add below. I also photocopied from Issues volume 112 Women, Men and Equality Independence published 2006, Issues volume 154 The Gender Gap Independence published 2008, Issues volume 221 Equality and Gender Roles published 2012 which I will use in my essay as it provides evidence that sexism still exists.
I also watched the Girls can code series which highlights the lack of women in high paid technology professions symbolising the pay gaps existence and demonstrates women are less aspirational and are not as intellectual. I will mention about the differences between men and women in a gender overview paragraph in my essay. Furthermore, itv had a documentary called ‘Britain as seen on itv’ which gave an insight into the representation of women and how this has changed over time. I will provide notes below.
I have decided I will in fact complete a survey/questionnaire so will begin thinking how to compose a suitable method for my enquiry.
Erving Goffman- Gender advertisements notes
1. Relative size: assumed difference in size correlates with differences in social weights. It expresses; power, authority, rank, and status. Congruence is facilitated among male occupations.
2. The feminine touch: Women are pictured using their fingers to trace the outline of objects. This suggests women have nurturing instincts to hold and cradle. Also images of self touching indicate the delicate, fragile female body as well as a provocative intention.
3. Function ranking: Men are represented top of occupational hierarchy e.g men as doctors and women as nurses. Men are also the head of the family unit and control women. Images of men feeding women romantically, suggest women are less able and are childlike. They are depicted as housewife’s and advertise cleaning products. Men are portrayed as ludicrous or stupid in the domestic activities.
4. The family: Always depicts as a mum, dad, son and daughter. It demonstrates presumed special mother, daughter bond and father son bonds. Also, it depicts the struggle of the son trying to live up to his dad’s expectations and be like their fathers. Problematic manhood. The father stands outside the circle to express protectiveness/ distance.
5. Ritualization of subordination: Women are pictured standing on floors mostly which are associated to uncleanness and less pure. Or laying on sofas which implies sexual availability. Women often pose with knees bent and are shown as childish or unserious. Whereas men are displayed in more forma business wear. Women are shown to have a close relationship to clothing. Coinciding with the view women love shopping. Women seek comfort from men and men usually have an arm around their shoulder showing procession.
6. Licensed withdrawal: Women are pictured in involvements which removes then psychologically, leaving them dependent on protection from others e.g partners. They are more emotional. Women are displayed in ads by having a finger touching their lips or cover their mouth. It indicates anxiety or thoughtfulness. They also shown to look downwards demonstrating self-enclosure/ submissive. They are shown to drift mentally away from the physical scene around them. Often women are on telephones connoting the idea women talk too much. They are thought to smile more too.
7. Shielding: Women shield themselves behind walls, objects or people. They also shown to snuggle things. It’s a form of partial withdrawal. But if nuzzling a partner, it is impersonal and a way of relying on them. It isn’t a sexual implication as men are more sex driven. Women rarely provide comfort to men as they are thought to be masculine.
Britain as seen on itv
Clips of men and female drivers. One man comments, ’Our offices use to over look the car park and you could always tell the women’s parking’.
An advert called ‘The trouble with men’ from 1962 documents women’s opinions on the modern man. ’There all right if they get their own way’. ’They come home, sit down and forget about everything’. ’I think when a women has a serious illness, they get through the illness faster then possibly a man would’.
Early 60’s people got married at 21.
Two thirds of women were happy to stay at home and be housewife’s, completing domestic duties.
1967 showed a documentary about women having jobs as well as mothers. Male teachers disagreed and said ’I don’t think you can say just because their mothers, doesn’t mean there qualified to teach’.
Late 1960’s sexual equality is changing.
1959 had only male bars.
1951 was the introduction of beauty pageants.
1981 Women encouraged to do DIY rather then depending on men. They were also prompted to grow their own food. This was very shocking.
Women shown to care about appearance. Lots to do with fashion. Like to appeal to men.
ATV report shows importance of presentation. Pop ideals have been an influence on women’s style.