Week four- notes and photocopies

I took another visit to the library this week to look in the English language section as I intend to analyse the type of language used within the adverts. I already have a background knowledge of theorists from my English AS, the likes of Deborah Tannen, Robin Lakin, Zimmerman and West, Hommes, Trudgill, Cheshire, Jennifer Coates, Ann Weatherall and Christian Howe. The books that looked useful were ‘Accent, Dialect and The School’ published 1975 Peter Trudgill, ‘The Language of Advertising’ published 1998 Angela Goddard and ‘Routledge A level English Guides Language and Social Context’ published 2003 Amanda Coultas. I plan to make notes on these over the weekend. I copied notes from ‘Gender Advertisements’ published 1976 Erving Goffman which I will add below. I also photocopied from Issues volume 112 Women, Men and Equality  Independence published 2006, Issues volume 154 The Gender Gap Independence published 2008, Issues volume 221 Equality and Gender Roles published 2012 which I will use in my essay as it provides evidence that sexism still exists.

I also watched the Girls can code series which highlights the lack of women in high paid technology professions symbolising the pay gaps existence and demonstrates women are less aspirational and are not as intellectual. I will mention about the differences between men and women in a gender overview paragraph in my essay. Furthermore, itv had a documentary called ‘Britain as seen on itv’ which gave an insight into the representation of women and how this has changed over time. I will provide notes below.

I have decided I will in fact complete a survey/questionnaire so will begin thinking how to compose a suitable method for my enquiry.

Erving Goffman- Gender advertisements notes

His findings…

1. Relative size: assumed difference in size correlates with differences in social weights. It expresses; power, authority, rank, and status. Congruence is facilitated among male occupations.
2. The feminine touch: Women are pictured using their fingers to trace the outline of objects. This suggests women have nurturing instincts to hold and cradle. Also images of self touching indicate the delicate, fragile female body as well as a provocative intention.
3. Function ranking: Men are represented top of occupational hierarchy e.g men as doctors and women as nurses. Men are also the head of the family unit and control women. Images of men feeding women romantically, suggest women are less able and are childlike. They are depicted as housewife’s and advertise cleaning products. Men are portrayed as ludicrous or stupid in the domestic activities.
4. The family: Always depicts as a mum, dad, son and daughter. It demonstrates presumed special mother, daughter bond and father son bonds. Also, it depicts the struggle of the son trying to live up to his dad’s expectations and be like their fathers. Problematic manhood. The father stands outside the circle to express protectiveness/ distance.
5. Ritualization of subordination: Women are pictured standing on floors mostly which are associated to uncleanness and less pure. Or laying on sofas which implies sexual availability. Women often pose with knees bent and are shown as childish or unserious. Whereas men are displayed in more forma business wear. Women are shown to have a close relationship to clothing. Coinciding with the view women love shopping. Women seek comfort from men and men usually have an arm around their shoulder showing procession.
6. Licensed withdrawal: Women are pictured in involvements which removes then psychologically, leaving them dependent on protection from others e.g partners. They are more emotional. Women are displayed in ads by having a finger touching their lips or cover their mouth. It indicates anxiety or thoughtfulness. They also shown to look downwards demonstrating self-enclosure/ submissive. They are shown to drift mentally away from the physical scene around them. Often women are on telephones connoting the idea women talk too much. They are thought to smile more too.
7. Shielding: Women shield themselves behind walls, objects or people. They also shown to snuggle things. It’s a form of partial withdrawal. But if nuzzling a partner, it is impersonal and a way of relying on them. It isn’t a sexual implication as men are more sex driven. Women rarely provide comfort to men as they are thought to be masculine.

Britain as seen on itv

Clips of men and female drivers. One man comments, ’Our offices use to over look the car park and you could always tell the women’s parking’.
An advert called ‘The trouble with men’ from 1962 documents women’s opinions on the modern man. ’There all right if they get their own way’. ’They come home, sit down and forget about everything’. ’I think when a women has a serious illness, they get through the illness faster then possibly a man would’.
Early 60’s people got married at 21.
Two thirds of women were happy to stay at home and be housewife’s, completing domestic duties.
1967 showed a documentary about women having jobs as well as mothers. Male teachers disagreed and said ’I don’t think you can say just because their mothers, doesn’t mean there qualified to teach’.
Late 1960’s sexual equality is changing.
1959 had only male bars.
1951 was the introduction of beauty pageants.
1981 Women encouraged to do DIY rather then depending on men. They were also prompted to grow their own food. This was very shocking.
Women shown to care about appearance. Lots to do with fashion. Like to appeal to men.
ATV report shows importance of presentation. Pop ideals have been an influence on women’s style.


Week two- Progression

This week has primarily been focused on reading my way through the books I borrowed from the library: Gender advertisements Erving Goffman published 1976, Feminist Media Studies Liesbet Van Zoonen published 1994, Issues volume 112 Women, Men and Equality  Independence published 2006, Issues volume 154 The Gender Gap Independence published 2008, Issues volume 221 Equality and Gender Roles published 2012 and Gender R.W Connell published 2002. So far I have read and made relevant notes from Equality and Gender Roles and Gender by R.W Connell.

Gender by R.W Connell had some interesting case studies and statistical facts:

‘93% of all cabinet ministers in the worlds government are men’

‘Increase in mens violence for instance the Columbine High School massacre and twenty-eight killings with guns in Queenlands Australia from 1987 to 1996. All twenty-eight killers were men’. Men are four times more likely to own a weapon compared to a women’

‘In Arab States women’s participation rates are as low as one-fifth the rate for men, and in South Asia and Latin America they are about half the rate for men’

‘Four decades after the women’s Liberation movement criticized sexist stereotypes, Western Media is still packed with images of female passivity’

‘Media directs boys towards competitive sports and girls to appearance’

Casestudy: ‘The play of gender in School life’ by Barrie Thorne proved most useful.

Simone De Beauvoir and Juliet Mitchell supported the gender patterns and attempted to change them as stated in this book. It may be an idea for me to research into them to see whether this opens up new leads of research for me.

I also began drafting my introduction to my project, however understand this is likely to change as I develop my understanding to the topic. I printed off an high grade exemplar extended project to help me structure the piece despite it being based on a completely different theme. I highlighted key features and wrote pointers on the example essay for my own benefit.

Abstract (Number of words here)
On November the 12th 1975, the Sex Discrimination Act was established in order to encourage the prosperity of gender equality and help assist in the deterioration of women’s subordinate and passive role in society. Yet, producers persistent failure to reduce stereotyping used in the media has meant that gender divisions still remain part of today’s world affairs. This issue is current, extensive and complex which is believed to have severe impacts on children’s knowledge about opposite sexes.

The aim of this project is to provide an analysis on gender stereotyping in advertising, particularly looking at the language use; to explore theorists ideas; how this effects the audience; and to determine the potential implications on children and society.

In my last post I mentioned having difficulty accessing online journals,almost all of the following need a login in:

Journals from https://journalarchives.jisc.ac.uk/home

Domestic violence and womens rights in Nigeria- Bazza, Hadiza Iza, published 2009
Gender, gender role and physical apperance- Jackson Linda A, Sullivan, Linda A, Hymes, Janet S- journal of psychology. Pubished 1987 Volume 121. Issue 1 , pages 51
Neutral job titles and occupational stereotypes- Lipton, Jack P, Conner, Maureen’O, Terry, Craig, Bellamy, Elizabeth. Published 1991 Journal of psychology. Volume 125. Issue 2, Page 129
Does occupational stereotypes still exist? Journal of psychology, Pierre, Rita St, Herendeen, Nina M, Moore, Diann S, Nagle, Anna. M, Volume 128, issue 5, pages 589, published 1994
To be, or not to be a women: anorexia Nervosa, Normative gender roles, and feminism-
Mahowald, Mary Briody. Journal of medicine and philosophy , volume 17, issue 2, pages 233-251, published April 1992
On the biology and politics of cognitive sex difference, journal Behavioural and brain sciences, by Geary, David C, volume 19 , issue 2, pages 267-284 published june 1996
Does being male help? Kahn, Kim Fridkin, The journal of politics, vloume 54, issue 2, pages 497-517

Does gender make the world go round? Feminist critiques of international relations- Adam Jones, review of international studies, volume 22, issue 4, pages 405-429 published 1996
Equality Issues in the CEE countries- Gromek-Broc, Katarzyna, volume 31, issue 4, pages 413-463, published 2006
The women and peace hypothesis?- Maoz, Ifat, international negotiation, volume 14, issue 3, pages 519-536 published December 2009
Selling picture- Wollen, Tana- journal: screen, volume 24, issue 6, pages 97-101 published 1983
Women candidates in the news- Kahn, Kim Fridkin, Goldenberg, Edie. N- Public opinion quarterly, volume 55, issue 2, pages 180-199, published 1991
Sex roles and sex coded roles- Money, John- Journal of pediatric psychology- volume 2, issue 3, pages 108-109, published 1977
Review of gender, sex and sexuality- Westmarland, Louise- journal of biosocial sciences- volume 27, issue 3, pages 371-372, published 1995
Sex differences in physical attractiveness preferences- Feinman, Saul, Gill, George. W- Journal of social psychology, volume 105, issue 1, pages 43, published 1978

All the journals from the website look particularly useful as there are some based on gender stereotypes in the media, rather then just gender as a whole. This is therefore closely related to my own research. I was advised to email the librarian to see whether our college has logins to access the journals.I am currently waiting for a response back.

Wed 16/09/2015 18:35

Week one- My aims and what I’ve done so far

My aim for this project is to discuss gender roles and representation, explore theorists idea and whether they still apply to today’s society and analyse some current commercials. To narrow my Title ‘ How are gender stereotypes represented in advertising through the use of language?’, I will primarily be focusing on TV adverts as oppose to paper ads. I will look closely at how language is used within these adverts, but first will research gender assumptions to comprehend why particular lexis may be used.

I began my extended project by drafting an initial plan which briefly outlines how I’m going to structure my dissertation as well as information I would like to include. I then began my research on the internet, finding newspaper articles, MP speech’s about gender issues and also websites on gender roles. https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/the-girl-effect-why-tackling-gender-inequality-can-transform-the-developing-world, https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/gender-stereotypes-academic-seminar-report, www.theguardian.com/media-network/2015/ay/26/eight-ads-shatter-gender-stereotypes, and http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/8070745.stm look particularly useful. The following website has recent statistics on gender equality in the UK http://www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/gender-equality-stats-update-2015.pdf. However, I know websites can have outdated information and can be bias depending who wrote them. In addition, I found on-line journals, but had difficulty accessing them due to costs or logins. But I wrote them in my bibliography and plan to ask at college whether they have access to them. I also found existing investigations on a similar topic to mine, but know they could be written by anyone so I wrote down some of there references. A theorist called Erving Goffman is frequently mentioned, so I collected a book written by him from the Worthing library ‘Gender Advertisements published 1976’.

I collected more books from the College library looking in the Sociology, English Language and Film studies section and found Sociology had numerous books on my chosen topic. ‘Equality and Gender roles volume 221 published 2012 by Independence’ (And there volumes 112 and 154 which were published 2006 and 2008), ‘Gender published in 2002 by R.W Connell, ‘Exploring Language for AQA B specification, Shirley Russell published 2008’ and ‘Feminist Media Studies published 1994 by Liesbet van Zoonen’.